Advice from the Presidents: The Students Guide to Reaching the Top in Business and Politics

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Airbnb is a prime example of the sharing concept; it was started when the jobless co-founders Brian Chesky and Joe Gebbia were forced to rent out their living room in Ridesharing, bike-sharing, and carpooling, as well as platform based services such as Uber and Lyft, are all set to expand to several parts of the world. From paying bills using a mobile phone to ordering a variety of items online, we are increasingly transforming into a population which gets everything done online. In a study done by Shopify in on more than , stores that use its software, This growth is further proven by the fact that the number of mobile users has already surpassed the number of desktop users.

Regions like the U. One example, in this case, would be my home country Pakistan, where security has improved exponentially during the past three to five years, and Telenor a Norwegian telecom company now owns the second largest market share within Pakistani telecom industry. With the Internet Live Stats estimating the number of internet users in Pakistan to be 34 million, E-commerce is beginning to be massively popular in Pakistan. But, based on a brief review I did, it seems that no E-commerce companies are investing in the more sustainable and economical inbound marketing strategies like SEO, content marketing, and CRO, and are, instead, hugely dependent on the riskier and less sustainable mediums of Facebook advertising and Facebook retargeting tactics alone.

This only means more opportunities for the wiser entrepreneurs. The Internet of Things IoT is on the rise given that after having networked mobile phones, TVs, and computers, the tech entrepreneurs and geeks of the world are working on networking devices like homes and refrigerators to make them smarter so as to improve our quality of life even further.

One can only image the kind of changes it will make to our business and our lives. They must be systematically examined and modified by scholars of politics before the truths that are part of these opinions are revealed. Because Aristotle uses this method of examining the opinions of others to arrive at truth, the reader must be careful to pay attention to whether a particular argument or belief is Aristotle's or not.

In many cases he is setting out an argument in order to challenge it.

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It can be difficult to tell when Aristotle is arguing in his own voice and when he is considering the opinions of others, but the reader must carefully make this distinction if they are to understand Aristotle's teachings. It has also been suggested that Aristotle's method should be seen as an example of how political discussion ought to be conducted: a variety of viewpoints and arguments are presented, and the final decision is arrived at through a consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of these viewpoints and arguments. In this case, Aristotle takes up the popular opinion that political rule is really the same as other kinds of rule: that of kings over their subjects, of fathers over their wives and children, and of masters over their slaves.

This opinion, he says, is mistaken. In fact, each of these kinds of rule is different.

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To see why, we must consider how the city comes into being, and it is to this that Aristotle next turns in Book I, Chapter 2. Here Aristotle tells the story of how cities have historically come into being. The first partnerships among human beings would have been between "persons who cannot exist without one another" a There are two pairs of people for whom this is the case.

One pair is that of male and female, for the sake of reproduction. This seems reasonable enough to the modern reader. The other pair, however, is that of "the naturally ruling and ruled, on account of preservation" a Here Aristotle is referring to slavery. By "preservation" he means that the naturally ruling master and naturally ruled slave need each other if they are to preserve themselves; slavery is a kind of partnership which benefits both master and slave.

We will see how later. For now, he simply says that these pairs of people come together and form a household, which exists for the purpose of meeting the needs of daily life such as food, shelter, clothing, and so forth. The family is only large enough to provide for the bare necessities of life, sustaining its members' lives and allowing for the reproduction of the species. Over time, the family expands, and as it does it will come into contact with other families.

Eventually a number of such families combine and form a village. Villages are better than families because they are more self-sufficient. Because villages are larger than families, people can specialize in a wider array of tasks and can develop skills in things like cooking, medicine, building, soldiering, and so forth which they could not develop in a smaller group.

So the residents of a village will live more comfortable lives, with access to more goods and services, than those who only live in families. The significant change in human communities, however, comes when a number of villages combine to form a city. A city is not just a big village, but is fundamentally different: "The partnership arising from [the union of] several villages that is complete is the city. It reaches a level of full self-sufficiency, so to speak; and while coming into being for the sake of living, it exists for the sake of living well" b Although the founders of cities create them for the sake of more comfortable lives, cities are unique in making it possible for people to live well.

Today we tend to think of "living well" as living a life of comfort, family satisfaction, and professional success, surrounded by nice things. But this is not what Aristotle means by "living well". His particular concern is with the free men who are citizens. Humans are not capable of becoming gods, but they are capable of becoming beasts, and in fact the worst kind of beasts: "For just as man is the best of the animals when completed, when separated from law and adjudication he is the worst of all" a Outside of the context of life in a properly constructed city, human happiness and well-being is impossible.


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There is therefore a sense in which the city "is prior by nature to the household and to each of us" a He compares the individual's relationship with the city to the relationship of a part of the body to the whole body. The destruction of the whole body would also mean the destruction of each of its parts; "if the whole [body] is destroyed there will not be a foot or a hand" a And just as a hand is not able to survive without being attached to a functioning body, so too an individual cannot survive without being attached to a city.

Presumably Aristotle also means to imply that the reverse is not true; a body can survive the loss of a foot or a hand, although not without consequence. If the history that he has described is correct, Aristotle points out, then the city is natural, and not purely an artificial human construction, since we have established that the first partnerships which make up the family are driven by natural impulses: "Every city, therefore, exists by nature, if such also are the first partnerships.

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For the city is their end…. From the very first partnerships of male and female and master and slave, nature has been aiming at the creation of cities, because cities are necessary for human beings to express their capacities and virtues at their best, thus fulfilling their potential and moving towards such perfection as is possible for human beings. While most people today would not agree that nature has a plan for individual human beings, a particular community, or humanity as a whole although many people would ascribe such a plan to a god or gods , Aristotle believes that nature does indeed have such a plan, and human beings have unique attributes that when properly used make it possible for us to fulfill that plan.

What are those attributes? That man is much more a political animal than any kind of bee or any herd animal is clear. For, as we assert, nature does nothing in vain, and man alone among the animals has speech For it is peculiar to man as compared to the other animals that he alone has a perception of good and bad and just and unjust and other things of this sort; and partnership in these things is what makes a household and a city a8.

Like bees and herd animals, human beings live together in groups. Unlike bees or herd animals, humans have the capacity for speech - or, in the Greek, logos. Here the linkage between speech and reason is clear: the purpose of speech, a purpose assigned to men by nature, is to reveal what is advantageous and harmful, and by doing so to reveal what is good and bad, just and unjust. This knowledge makes it possible for human beings to live together, and at the same time makes it possible for us to pursue justice as part of the virtuous lives we are meant to live.

Other animals living in groups, such as bees, goats, and cows, do not have the ability to speak or to reason as Aristotle uses those terms. Of course, they do not need this ability. They are able to live together without determining what is just and unjust or creating laws to enforce justice among themselves. Human beings, for better or worse, cannot do this. Although nature brings us together - we are by nature political animals — nature alone does not give us all of what we need to live together: "[T]here is in everyone by nature an impulse toward this sort of partnership.

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And yet the one who first constituted [a city] is responsible for the greatest of goods" [a29]. We must figure out how to live together for ourselves through the use of reason and speech, discovering justice and creating laws that make it possible for human community to survive and for the individuals in it to live virtuous lives. A group of people that has done this is a city: "[The virtue of] justice is a thing belonging to the city.

For adjudication is an arrangement of the political partnership, and adjudication is judgment as to what is just" a And in discovering and living according to the right laws, acting with justice and exercising the virtues that allow human society to function, we make possible not only the success of the political community but also the flourishing of our own individual virtue and happiness.

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Without the city and its justice, human beings are the worst of animals, just as we are the best when we are completed by the right kind of life in the city. And it is the pursuit of virtue rather than the pursuit of wealth or security or safety or military strength that is the most important element of a city: "The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together" a1.

Having described the basic parts of the city, Aristotle returns in Chapter 3 of Book I to a discussion of the household, beginning with the matter of slavery, including the question of whether slavery is just and hence an acceptable institution or not. This, for most contemporary readers is one of the two most offensive portions of Aristotle's moral and political thought the other is his treatment of women, about which more will be said below.

For most people today, of course, the answer to this is obvious: slavery is not just, and in fact is one of the greatest injustices and moral crimes that it is possible to commit. Although it is not widely known, there are still large numbers of people held in slavery throughout the world at the beginning of the 21st century. It is easy to believe that people in the "modern world" have put a great deal of moral distance between themselves and the less enlightened people in the past, but it is also easy to overestimate that distance.

In Aristotle's time most people - at least the ones that were not themselves slaves — would also have believed that this question had an obvious answer, if they had asked the question at all: of course slavery is just. Virtually every ancient Mediterranean culture had some form of the institution of slavery.

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Slaves were usually of two kinds: either they had at one point been defeated in war, and the fact that they had been defeated meant that they were inferior and meant to serve, or else they were the children of slaves, in which case their inferiority was clear from their inferior parentage. Aristotle himself says that the sort of war that involves hunting "those human beings who are naturally suited to be ruled but [are] unwilling…[is] by nature just" b What is more, the economies of the Greek city-states rested on slavery, and without slaves and women to do the productive labor, there could be no leisure for men to engage in more intellectual lifestyles.

The greatness of Athenian plays, architecture, sculpture, and philosophy could not have been achieved without the institution of slavery. Therefore, as a practical matter, regardless of the arguments for or against it, slavery was not going to be abolished in the Greek world.

Advice from the Presidents: The Student's Guide to Reaching the Top in Business and Politics

This is not to excuse Aristotle or those of his time who supported slavery, but it should be kept in mind so as to give Aristotle a fair hearing. Before considering Aristotle's ultimate position on the justness of slavery - for who, and under what circumstances, slavery is appropriate — it must be pointed out that there is a great deal of disagreement about what that position is. That Aristotle believes slavery to be just and good for both master and slave in some circumstances is undeniable. That he believes that some people who are currently enslaved are not being held in slavery according to justice is also undeniable this would apparently also mean that there are people who should be enslaved but currently are not.