Alto Clef Notes Teacher Manual
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Here are the four steps for our sight reading exercise. When you are practicing any skill for music, remember that quality is much more important and quantity. Slow and highly focused practice will get you faster results in your musical development that any other method. Use a practice journal. Download a copy of the One Minute Music Lesson practice journal here. Use it to track your minutes-a-day sight reading exercise.
Get your materials ready. Our examples below are from pages of the 7th edition of the book. Stay focused. Focus on one aspect of music reading, either pitch or rhythm until you are comfortable with both. Use a timer. Use an online timer or the timer on your cell phone and set it to minutes. By setting a timer you are consciously creating a goal for developing your skills.
This is the key to your progress over time. By using the timer you will practice this skill until the timer goes off without think about how long this task will take. Also you will not be focused on how much time is remaining to your sight reading practice thus keeping you goal-oriented during the session. Need More Help? The One Minute Music Lesson with Leon Harrell is dedicated to teaching music step by step to anyone who wants to truly understand how music works from the ground up. Did this blog spur new ideas for your music program? Share them on Amplify! Interested in reprinting this article?
Among the instruments that use treble clef are the violin , flute , oboe , bagpipe , cor anglais , all clarinets , all saxophones , horn , trumpet , cornet , vibraphone , xylophone , mandolin , recorder ; it is also used for the guitar , which sounds an octave lower than written, as well as the euphonium and baritone horn , both of which sound a major ninth lower. Treble clef is the upper stave of the grand stave used for harp and keyboard instruments. It is also sometimes used, along with tenor clef, for the highest notes played by bass-clef instruments such as the cello , double bass which sounds an octave lower , bassoon , and trombone.
The viola also sometimes uses treble clef for very high notes. Treble clef is used for the soprano , mezzo-soprano , alto , contralto and tenor voices. When sung, a tenor singer will sing the piece an octave lower, and is often written using an octave clef see below or double-treble clef.
For this reason it is known as the French clef or French violin clef, although it was more commonly used for flute music. This is the only F-clef used today so that the terms "F-clef" and "bass clef" are often regarded as synonymous. This clef is used for the cello, euphonium, double bass, bass guitar , bassoon, contrabassoon , trombone, baritone horn , tuba , and timpani. It is also used for the lowest notes of the horn , and for the baritone and bass voices. Tenor voice is notated in bass clef when the tenor and bass are written on the same stave.
Bass clef is the bottom clef in the grand stave for harp and keyboard instruments. This clef was used for the left hand of keyboard music particularly in France; see Bauyn manuscript as well as the baritone part in vocal music. The baritone clef has the less common variant as a C clef placed on the 5th line which is exactly equivalent see below.
It is identical to the treble clef transposed down 2 octaves. This clef is currently used for the viola, viola d'amore , the viola da gamba , the alto trombone , and the mandola. It is also associated with the countertenor voice and therefore called the counter-tenor or countertenor clef. It occasionally turns up in keyboard music to the present day for example, in Brahms 's Organ Chorales and John Cage 's Dream for piano. This clef is used for the upper ranges of the bassoon, cello, euphonium, double bass, and trombone. These instruments use bass clef for their low- to mid-ranges; treble clef is also used for their upper extremes.
Where used for the double bass, the sound is an octave lower than the written pitch.
The tenor violin parts were also drafted in this clef see e. Giovanni Battista Vitali 's Op.
Formerly, it was used by the tenor part in vocal music but its use has been largely supplanted [ why? It is precisely the equivalent to the other more common form of the baritone clef, an F clef placed on the 3rd line see above. The mezzo-soprano clef is very rarely used in modern contexts.
Reading note names bass clef - basic
It was traditionally used for mezzo-soprano voices in operatic roles, notably by composer Claudio Monteverdi. This clef was used for the right hand of keyboard music particularly in France; see Bauyn manuscript as well as in vocal music for sopranos, and sometimes in high viola da gamba [ clarification needed ] parts alongside the alto clef. Starting in the 18th-century treble clef has been used for transposing instruments that sound an octave lower, such as the guitar ; it has also been used for the tenor voice.
To avoid ambiguity, modified clefs are sometimes used, especially in the context of choral writing; of those shown, the C clef on the third space, easily confused with the tenor clef, is the rarest. This is most often found in tenor parts in SATB settings, in which a treble clef is written with the numeral 8 below it, indicating that the pitches sound an octave below the written value. As the true tenor clef has fallen into disuse in vocal writings, this "octave-dropped" treble clef is often called the tenor clef.
The same clef is sometimes used for the octave mandolin. In some scores, the same concept is construed by using a double clef—two G-clefs overlapping one another. Tenor banjo is commonly notated in treble clef. However, notation varies between the written pitch sounding an octave lower as in guitar music and called octave pitch in most tenor banjo methods and music sounding at the written pitch called actual pitch.
An attempt has been made to use a treble clef with a diagonal line through the upper half of the clef to indicate octave pitch, but this is not always used. At the other end of the spectrum, treble clefs with an 8 positioned above the clef may be used for the piccolo , penny whistle , soprano and sopranino recorder , and other high woodwind parts. A treble clef with a 15 above sounding two octaves above the standard treble clef is used for the garklein sopranissimo recorder , whose lowest note is two octaves above middle C.
The F clef can also be notated with an octave marker. The F clef notated to sound an octave lower is used for contrabass instruments such as the double bass and contrabassoon. The F clef notated to sound an octave higher is used for the bass recorder. However, both of these are extremely rare and, in fact, the countertenor clef is largely intended to be humorous as with the works of P.
In Italian scores up to Gioachino Rossini 's Overture to William Tell , the cor anglais was written in bass clef an octave lower than sounding.
C Clef (Alto Clef and Tenor Clef) Presentation & Exit Ticket-Lesson Plan
Use of octave-marked clefs appears to have increased as computers have become more important in musical transcription. Performers will normally know the right octave to use with or without the octave marking. However, the appropriate use of octave marking in score editing software ensures that music files such as MIDI files generate tones in their proper octaves. The neutral or percussion clef is not a clef in the same sense that the F, C, and G clefs are. It is simply a convention that indicates that the lines and spaces of the stave are each assigned to a percussion instrument with no precise pitch.
With the exception of some common drum-kit and marching percussion layouts, the keying of lines and spaces to instruments is not standardised, so a legend or indications above the stave are necessary to indicate what is to be played. Percussion instruments with identifiable pitches do not use the neutral clef, and timpani notated in bass clef and mallet percussion noted in treble clef or on a grand stave are usually notated on different staves than unpitched percussion.
Staves with a neutral clef do not always have five lines. Commonly, percussion staves only have one line, although other configurations can be used. The neutral clef is sometimes used where non-percussion instruments play non-pitched extended techniques, such as hitting the body of a violin, violoncello or acoustic guitar, or where a vocal choir is instructed to clap, stomp, or snap, but more often the rhythms are written with X marks in the instrument's normal stave with a comment placed above as to the appropriate rhythmic action.
For guitars and other fretted instruments, it is possible to notate tablature in place of ordinary notes. In this case, a TAB-sign is often written instead of a clef. The number of lines of the stave is not necessarily five: one line is used for each string of the instrument so, for standard six-stringed guitars, six lines would be used, four lines for the traditional bass guitar. Numbers on the lines show on which fret the string should be played. This Tab-sign, like the Percussion clef, is not a clef in the true sense, but rather a symbol employed instead of a clef. Originally, instead of a special clef symbol, the reference line of the stave was simply labeled with the name of the note it was intended to bear: F and C and, more rarely, G.
These were the most often-used 'clefs', or litterae clavis key-letters , in Gregorian chant notation.
Over time the shapes of these letters became stylised, leading to their current versions. In the polyphonic period up to , unusual clefs were occasionally used for parts with extremely high or low written tessituras.
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Varying shapes of different clefs persisted until very recent times. The F-clef was, until as late as the s in some cases such as hymnals , or in British and French publications, written like this:. In printed music from the 16th and 17th centuries, the C clef often assumed a ladder-like form, in which the two horizontal rungs surround the stave line indicated as C: ; this form survived in some printed editions see this example , written in four-part men's harmony and positioned to make it equivalent to an octave G clef into the 20th century.