Aspects of Colonial Tanzania History
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He had to grant the Portuguese access to Zanzibar and he had to agree to provide Portuguese ships with food and water. He also had to pay tribute to Portugal. In the Portuguese captured Mombassa and in they captured Pemba Island. In the people of Unguja Island and Pemba Island rebelled but they were crushed by the Portuguese. During the 16th century, the Portuguese took control of the coast and they built forts.
In they founded Zanzibar town. The Portuguese also introduced 2 plants from Brazil, cassava and cashew nuts. However the Portuguese only controlled the coast of Tanzania and in the 17th century they were driven out by Arabs from Oman. The Arabs captured Unguja in The last Portuguese were expelled from Pemba in The Arab victory ensured that Tanzania did not become a Portuguese colony like Mozambique.
Instead, from the end of the 17th century, the Arabs were the dominant power in the region. In the 18th century and 19th century Arab slave traders took huge numbers of slaves from Tanzania and exported them from Tanzania. The slaves were sold to Arabs or to European colonies in the Indian Ocean. In a man named Saleh bin Haramil introduced cloves to Zanzibar.
Soon cloves became a major export. The clove plantations were worked by African slaves. In the 19th century Europeans began to explore inland Tanzania. In the s missionaries arrived in Tanzania. Then in the Germans began taking over the region. The Germans were led by Karl Peters.
Peters persuaded African chiefs to make treaties with his company. Legally Peters acted independently of the German government. Nevertheless, his government approved his actions. Meanwhile the British had taken control of the island of Zanzibar. In Britain and Germany signed a treaty dividing the area between them. Britain took Zanzibar and Germany took mainland Tanzania.
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Then in January , the German government took direct control of Tanzania. However, from the start, the Germans faced resistance in Tanzania. The first uprising was the Abushiri revolt of The people on the coast of Tanzania resented German interference and they rose in a revolt led by a man named Abushiri bin Salim al-Harth.
However, the Germans eventually crushed the revolt. From to the Germans fought a war with a people called the Hehe. Eventually, the Hehe were defeated and their leader, Mkwawa, killed himself.
In came the Maji Maji rebellion. Africans were forced to work on cotton plantations and eventually, southern Tanzania rose in rebellion. The rebellion was crushed after the Germans adopted a 'scorched earth' policy. At least , people died both as a result of the fighting and as a result of starvation.
Between and tonnes of dinosaur bones were discovered at Tendaguru, north of Lindi. The bones were shipped to a museum in Berlin. In came the First World War.
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He was a very able man. When a British force landed at Tanga in November it was defeated and fled leaving many weapons in German hands. The British invaded again in but they were unable to defeat the Germans. However, by the Germans in Tanzania were running out of food and ammunition so they turned to guerrilla warfare. They continued to fight until Germany itself surrendered in November After the war Tanzania was handed over to the British.
It was called Tanganyika. In Sir Donald Cameron became the first governor. In a legislative council met.
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Under British rule, Tanzania exported cash crops like cotton. Much was grown on European owned plantations. However, some were also grown by Africans. Meanwhile the Africans began to organize themselves.