My Lord Duke

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Other descendants are not permitted to use the peer's subsidiary titles. Only the heir apparent and heir apparent to the heir apparent, and so on may use them.

My Lord Duke by E. W. Hornung: Chapter 17

An heir presumptive e. Wives are entitled to use the feminine form of their husbands' courtesy titles. Thus, the wife of an Earl of Arundel would be styled "Countess of Arundel" again, without the article.

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Holders of courtesy titles do not, at the Court of St James's , have their title preceded by the definite article "The": e. The actual courtesy title which is used is a matter of family tradition. For instance, the eldest son of The Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry is styled " Earl of Dalkeith ", even though the duke is also The Marquess of Dumfriesshire , a title which outranks the earldom.

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Titles with the same name as a peer's main title are not used as courtesy titles. The duke's eldest son is not styled "Marquess of Westminster" which would cause confusion between the son and the father , and so is styled "Earl Grosvenor" instead. The title used does not have to be exactly equivalent to the actual peerage.

For example, the eldest son of The Duke of Wellington is usually styled " Marquess of Douro ", although the actual peerage possessed by his father is Marquess Douro not of Douro. If a peer of the rank of earl or above does not have any subsidiary titles of a name different from his main title, his eldest son usually uses an invented courtesy title of "Lord [Surname]". For instance, the eldest son of The Earl of Devon is styled " Lord Courtenay ", even though the Earl has no barony of that name; similarly, the eldest son of The Earl of Guilford is styled " Lord North ".

The eldest son of The Earl of Huntingdon , who has no subsidiary titles, is styled " Viscount Hastings " to avoid confusion with The Lord Hastings , a substantive peer.

Courtesy Titles

Another form of courtesy title is the honorific prefix of "Lord" before the name. This non-peerage title is accorded to younger sons of dukes and marquesses. The courtesy title is added before the person's given name and surname , as in the example of Lord Randolph Churchill , although conversational usage drops the surname on secondary reference. The title persists after the death of the holder's father, but is not inherited by any of his children. The wife of the holder is entitled to the feminine form of her husband's title, which takes the form of "Lady", followed by her husband's given name and surname , as in the example of Lady Randolph Churchill.

The holder is addressed as "Lord Randolph" and his wife as "Lady Randolph". The honorific prefix of "Lady" is used for the daughters of dukes, marquesses and earls. The courtesy title is added before the person's given name, as in the example Lady Diana Spencer. Because it is merely a courtesy with no legal implications, the honorific persists after the death of the holder's father but it is not inherited by her children.

The spouse of a woman with an honorific title does not hold any courtesy title in right of their spouse. Neither does the husband of a woman or man with any title including the husband of a peer. The younger sons of earls, along with all sons and daughters of viscounts, barons and lords of parliament are accorded the courtesy style of " The Honourable " before their name.

This is usually abbreviated to "The Hon. It is used only in third person reference, not in speaking to the person. The daughter of a duke, marquess, or earl who marries an untitled man becomes "Lady [ Given name ] [ Husband's surname ]". The daughter of a viscount or baron who marries a commoner is styled "The Honourable [ Given name ] [ Husband's surname ]" the given name is dropped and Mrs is substituted if the husband's right to the style derives from office or appointment rather than from ancestral peerage.

Any woman who marries a peer uses the feminine version of his peerage title, even if her own precedence is higher than his, as in the case of a duke's daughter marrying a baron, because a peerage is a substantive title, the usage of which is preferred to any courtesy style - unless she marries into the Royal Family. If a woman marries the younger son of a duke or marquess, she becomes "Lady [ Husband's given name ] [ Husband's surname ].

Mrs [ Husband's given name ] [ Husband's surname ]. In case of a divorce, she may keep the same style as during marriage or she may choose to assume the style "Mrs [ Given name ] [ Husband's surname ]. Until , children who had been adopted by peers had no right to any courtesy title. Pursuant to a Royal Warrant dated 30 April , [3] these children are now automatically entitled to the same styles and courtesy titles as their siblings. However, unlike biological children, they cannot inherit peerages from their parent [4] and thus, since they cannot be heirs, if a peer adopts a son and he is the oldest son, he would use the styles of younger sons.

Occasionally, a peer succeeds to a peerage upon the death of a relative who is not one of his or her parents. When this happens, the relatives of the new peer may be allowed to use the courtesy titles or styles which would have been accorded them if the new peer had succeeded a parent or grandparent in the title. For instance, Rupert Ponsonby, 7th Baron de Mauley , succeeded his uncle in His brother George had no title, as their father was only the younger son of a peer and was never actually Baron de Mauley.

However, in , George was granted, by Warrant of Precedence from Queen Elizabeth II , the style and precedence that would have been his, had his father survived to inherit the barony, becoming The Honourable George Ponsonby.

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The wife of a substantive peer is legally entitled to the privileges of peerage: she is said to have a "life estate" in her husband's dignity. Thus a duke's wife is titled a " duchess ", a marquess's wife a " marchioness ", an earl's wife a " countess ", a viscount's wife a " viscountess " and a baron's wife a " baroness ". Despite being referred to as a "peeress", she is not a peer in her own right: this is a 'style' and not a substantive title.

However, this is considered a legal title, unlike the social titles of a peer's children. Claude and Cripps exchanged sympathetic glances. A grinning guard came forward with his key. English fashion, is it? And you call that drop a nobbler, do you, in the old country? They were really glad when the train started. The Duke was in high spirits. The whisky had loosened his tongue. They were my only mates, year in, year out, up at the hut. A little caution, I tell you! Out you come, Livingstone! Claude thought he had never seen a more ill-favoured animal. To call it tortoise-shell was to misuse the word.

I nearly slung him over the side. Poor little puss, then, poor little puss! What a darned shame! Why, you ought to be a Dook. Claude, for his part, saw nothing to laugh at. Like Claude himself, he had the long Lafont nose, though sun and wind had peeled it red; and a pair of shaggy brown eyebrows gave strength at all events to the hairy face.

Not that his suit was on a par with his abominable wideawake. He could not have worn these clothes in the bush. They were obviously his best; and, as obviously, ready-made.

Forms of Address

You should tell the other gentleman about that. We never thought we was a Dook, did we? We thought ourselves a blooming ordinary common man. My colonial oath, and so we are! I mean the time we went to knock down the thirty-one pound cheque what never got knocked down properly at all. I declare it does my old heart good to see an honest green field again! Hear that, Livingstone? It would hurt him to hear how we knocked down our last little cheque!