Sigmund Freuds Das Unbehagen in der Kultur und die Aktualität dieser Abhandlung (German Edition)
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NR — unfolds an intergenerational dynamic. They all too often neglect differences and must be understood within the context of post-NS defense against guilt that has experienced an upheaval by recent debates about German war traumas. On the one hand, research has established that neither the severe National Socialist, anti-Semitic, and racist attitudes within the German majority population Decker et al.
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Right-wing adolescents act out National Socialist emotional heritage in a specific way and think and place themselves back to the history of their grandparents, performing it in their current social reality see Lohl, From his radically subject-centered position he not only inquires into the development of the ego and bourgeois self-awareness, he deconstructs them as chimeras of a subject split in itself, but also interrogates the ontogenetic conditions of subjectivity, the conditions of the differentiation between inner and outer reality, subject and object, past, presence, and future.
The meta-psychological encircling of notions like desire, fantasy, drive, sexuality, unconscious, body, reality, afterwardness, etc. What is it with psychoanalytic subject theory that brings about such different evaluations of its counter- emancipative potential? Freud has described human drive structure as bisexual.
Libido thus unites the contradictory features e. According to Horney, this view was the result of male presumptuousness. On a theoretical level, she blames Freud for having neglected biology. When the National Socialists rose to power at the beginning of the s, this controversial debate was disrupted and was not pursued further in exile.
The German-American sociologist Carol Hagemann-White explains this feminist discomfort with psychoanalysis. Feminists finally called the drive model of psychoanalysis into question. Did it not start from a biologically given, monadic male subject that only uses the other as an object for its own purposes? Instead, the authors drew upon learning theory Scheu, Contradictions in gendered subjectivity, which revealed the concept of a male and female social character as an ideology, became more evident Liebisch, : Actual women and men are not as is expected of them by social norms.
The difference between description and legitimation that Freud had been blamed for shows when one pays attention to the rupture and contradictions that expose reality as conflictuous and as discordant with its ideology. In addition to these social theoretical adaptations of psychoanalysis, the internal debate developed further.
Male development could not be thought of as generically human but, like female development, as particular. At the end of the s, debates about the social psychological explanation of female perpetratorship during National Socialism took on central stage in the feminist advancement of psychoanalysis. Mitscherlich had proposed the thesis that female anti-Semites and National Socialist perpetrators developed their attitudes and committed crimes because they identified with the aggressor, i.
Discomfort with the drive concept, wide spread among feminists of the s because it seemed to accord too much significance to biology, entered feminist advancements of psychoanalysis. Object relations theory and its successor, intersubjective psychoanalysis, were considered a valid alternative. These theories emphasized the ambivalent quality of pre- Oedipal relationship experiences between autonomy and dependency instead of the contradiction between drive realization and its refusal by the environment.
Furthermore, the family-centered argumentation that had long put a special focus on the conduct of concrete caregivers was replaced by symbol and language theoretical approaches. In the context of new developments in socialization research e. NR must be understood as a never-ending, active, and at times restive mal appropriation of cultural norms by subjects. As constructivist and discourse analytic approaches have triumphed in gender studies since the early s, psychoanalytic approaches only play a marginal role in German gender studies Liebsch, Nevertheless, its lively and promising advancement can be seen especially in its dialogue with poststructuralist approaches.
The feminist critique of the drive model did not lead to the abandonment of the model altogether, but to its reformulation in interaction theoretical terms.
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In addition to French Lacanian psychoanalysis e. NR; see Quindeau, b. Psychoanalysis as a method in social research Various among the above mentioned authors have also made attempts to seize psychoanalytic approaches systematically and methodologically for empirical social research. Important impulses came from the context of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, for example, the studies on Authoritarian Personality Adorno, et al.
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Of central importance for a psychoanalytically inspired methodology is the so-called depth- hermeneutical culture analysis, an approach that dates back to Alfred Lorenzer. His pointed emphasis on psychoanalysis as a theory of interaction and socialization is of special significance in this regard see chapter 1.
The shared interaction, the play of transference and counter-transference, makes it possible to reconstruct a layer of meaning that evades a mere content analysis. Lorenzer transfers psychoanalytic method into the realm of psychoanalytic literary interpretation, conceptualized as a reception analysis. In his method transfer, Lorenzer emphatically stresses the difference between clinical psychoanalysis and culture analysis, which is of utmost importance and cannot be over-emphasized Lorenzer, The differentiation between manifest and latent text level is pivotal.
Lorenzer understands these unconscious interaction forms see Chapter 1.
Even if these conceptions do not enter the manifest text via language symbols, they still have an effect on it. This effect shows as ambiguity and imagery of the text but also as a destruction of language: as abrupt changes of subject, slips, gaps, and verbal unsoundness. Such inconsistencies provide a particularly productive access to the latent meaning of a text.
Everyday social interactions, as well, have an unconscious layer of meaning that gains expression outside of consciousness. Scenic understanding aims at these traces. Following Lorenzer , who emphasizes the differences between scenic understanding in the clinical setting and in culture analysis, Morgenroth calls for using a modified form of scenic understanding for social research the core of which is collective interpretation in interpretation groups. This group interpretation moves back and forth between a detailed and standardized reading of the empirical material and the reflection of irritations, affects, and conflicts the material effects on the group.
Morgenroth b defines these reactions with a broader notion than counter-transference. When these interactions are taken as serious and reflected carefully, they offer insight into the latent meaning structure of the empirical material. For psychoanalytic social psychology, aspects that are — not always, but often — neglected in social research are of vital importance: reflecting on the research relationship, the subjectivity of researchers, their emotional reactions to the research topic, irritations and conflicts in the interpretation group.
A special feature that critical social psychology shares with therapeutic psychoanalysis is certainly its emancipative aspiration.
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Taking back research results into the research field and reflecting on the results together with the participants is, however, still an exception rather than the rule. Parallel to, and partly in overlap with depth-hermeneutics, ethno-psychoanalysis, too, has been established as an instrument of qualitative research. NR going along with it, caught the interest of younger researchers.
In this context, the works of Hans Bosses deserve mention. With his ethno-hermeneutic, Bosses developed an empirical approach of ethno- psychoanalysis that combines ethnographic, sociological, psychoanalytic, and group-analytic methods of interpretation in a productive method. Maya Nadig and Johannes Reichmayr have argued that ethno-psychoanalysis can readily be taken up by and fit in with recent discussions in ethnology, cultural studies, the social sciences, and the arts and humanities, which are influenced by the poststructuralist paradigm change.
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This holds for much psychoanalytically inspired research. Methodical aspects that have been pivotal for psychoanalytic approaches all along, have gained increasing relevance: Qualitative research drawing on exemplary reconstructions of cases and narrative meaning, among others , transparency within the research relationship by means of reflecting dynamics of transference and counter-transference and the situatedness of knowledge, integrating subjective and emotional dimensions into the research process, contextualizing and specifying instead of categorizing, and drawing on the sequentiality and process-oriented nature of research and the research relationship.
The lack of the necessary multiple qualifications among researchers is still a problem that could be solved by cultivating inter- and transdisciplinary collaborations especially in the realm of method training. Concluding remarks In this overview, we have reconstructed the history of critical social psychology on the one hand and have discussed exemplary important topics on the other hand. We want to repeat that we make no claims of having offered a complete overview. A more detailed overview would have to integrate other important topics of critical psychoanalytic social psychology for example, studies on the class consciousness of workers, on the German unification and on German nationalism, on the past of East Germany and its consequences, and the field of psychoanalytic analysis of organizations and institutions, etc.
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Furthermore, the overview of developments since the s would have to be extended — a requirement we could not fulfill in this paper. The places at which psychoanalytic social psychology could get institutionalized at universities during the s and s were a fruitful soil on which psychoanalytic social psychological research could flourish. The generation of researchers who are pursuing their PhDs and habilitations at the moment have hardly succeeded in getting institutionalized by now — not least because of changing power structures at universities.
Certainly, this also has to do with the fact that German speaking critical psychoanalytic social psychology has been rather separatist and self-referential up until the s: Only occasionally did it take up new psychoanalytic, sociological, and critical theories that could have been productive for the answering of its questions but also for the generation of new research questions.
Furthermore, it restricted itself to debates and topics that were carried out in the German language or were accessible in it — international reception was lacking for the most part. This does not only come as a disadvantage. First, it allows for a discussion of certain core issues that is carried out under ever new historic circumstances.
The future of critical psychoanalytic social psychology will depend on whether it succeeds in staying or becoming visible, scientifically, politically, and socially, with its theories, methods, and topics, and on the borders and transitions between other critical approaches and disciplines. It is not only the re-establishment of psychoanalytic social psychologies at universities that is at stake here, but also the continuation of its political potential.
Its aspiration of working towards an emancipative restructuring of the societal status quo must not be abandoned. For this end, psychoanalytic social psychology also needs to stay in critical dialogue with political and social agents, with people acting, hoping, and suffering. The currently precarious institutional situation of psychoanalytic social psychology is not only a disadvantage.. First, with the younger generation of psychoanalytically oriented social psychologists, it also has an activating and re- politicizing effect that becomes visible in a multitude of new co-operations, conferences, and publications.
In the realm of science politics, it aims at making visible the knowledge potential of psychoanalytic social psychology and at interfering with public discourses and political struggles.