Sustainability of Biofuel Production from Oil Palm Biomass (Green Energy and Technology)

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Various advanced biofuels can be produced with algae as feedstock, but economics call for higher-value products, such as cosmetics, pigments, food supplements and additives etc. Algal biofuels have attracted great interest as they do not compete with food crops for land use, but the technology is not yet as mature as that for some other advanced biofuels.

In general, advanced bioenergy is produced from cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials, such as agricultural and forestry residues , wastes , energy crops , or aquatic biomass. The aim is to develop energy crops that result in the production of more fuel per unit of land used and require less chemical and energy input for production and harvesting. This results in a higher yield in terms of net GJ energy produced per hectare land used. Preferably, energy crops are grown on marginal land that does not compete directly with or displace land used for food crops.

In advanced bioenergy for the EHC market, the feedstocks used in conventional bioenergy are applied in pretreated form. This minimizes changes needed in installed infrastructure.

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In EU legislation, advanced biofuels are defined by the feedstock used. Yes, if done in the right way. The positive effect on GHG emissions reduction can be calculated by a Life Cycle Assessment LCA , for any specific pathway, taking into account the cultivation, harvest, transport and conversion. Generally such assessments show that advanced bioenergy offers great reduction of GHG emissions compared to conventional bioenergy and the more when compared to fossil fuel or energy.

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However, there is competition for land and feedstock between advanced biofuels, use for heat and power generation through combustion, and material use. The European Technology and Innovation Platform ETIP Bioenergy brings together stakeholders from academia, industry and civil society involved in the development of research and innovation strategies for energy technologies, who interact with relevant public authorities of the EU Member States as well as the European Commission.

The aim, defined in the Terms of References, is to come to a coordinated, coherent and efficient implementation of the objectives of the Energy Union including the Framework scenario and the Roadmap for a secure, affordable, competitive and efficient energy system. The mission of ETIP Bioenergy is to contribute to the development of cost-competitive, innovative world-class bioenergy, biofuels and other renewable liquid and gaseous fuel value chains including renewable electrofuels, to the creation and strengthening of a healthy European bioenergy industry and to accelerate the sustainable deployment of bioenergy and renewable fuels in the European Union through a process of guidance , prioritization and promotion of research, technological development and demonstration.

A wide range of Horizon projects made a significant contribution to the development of advanced biofuels technology in Europe. Links and details are included on the research funding page of the ETIP website.

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The future EU research and innovation programme " Horizon Europe - the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation " covers funding from — Advanced bioenergy. Advanced Bioenergy in Europe Contents This page offers general information on advanced bioenergy in Europe, with links to more detailed information on the ETIP Bioenergy website and other information sources. What is advanced bioenergy?

Which advanced bioenergy products are there and how much is consumed? What are the benefits of advanced bioenergy? This chapter discusses into detail the various forms of oil palm biomass, their characteristics, and potential applications in the biofuels industry. The oil palm presents a comparatively advantageous source of feedstock for biofuels production compared to other first-generation biofuel feedstocks. Among the sources of feedstocks for biofuel production currently available and developed in the world, the oil palm is the prime option which fulfills the sustainability criteria for high productivity, efficiency, competitive price discounts, and above all it is cost effective.

Biofuels produced from oil palm biomass would be considered sustainable only when all the production chains from oil palm cultivation to biofuels production including the production of input materials and energy are within the acceptable production criteria for sustainable oil palm and biofuels developments. In order for the oil palm industry to fully accomplish the objectives of sustainable oil palm biofuels production, Malaysia and Indonesia are currently ensuring the implementation of stringent sustainability standards via best management practices especially for the production of palm biofuels so as to improve yield and reduce the amount of input resources.

This chapter highlights on some best management practices involving globally accepted initiatives for sustainable oil palm agriculture, palm oil milling, and refining as well as different production routes to palm biofuels production. Integration of different production routes for various types of palm biofuels through effective utilization of wastes for sustainable development are also elaborated in this chapter.

With the aim of minimizing the dependency on fossil fuels whilst improving the economic viability and environmental performances of oil palm production for biofuels production, emission control from these systems become invincible. However, with best management practices couples with stringent adherence to basic environmental sustainability principles, these hurdles may be surmounted.

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The environmental sustainability dimension of impact assessment for this chapter is based on life cycle assessment for common palm biofuels like biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-methanol via BtL route, biogas and bio-electricity from oil palm biomass. Possible improvement options are also outlined in this chapter to ensure more positive energy balance and almost zero emissions from each of the biofuels production systems considered. The production of palm biofuels provides the prospects for new economic opportunities for most people in rural communities in developing countries.

Oil palm cultivation and palm oil milling provide wide avenues for people in terms of job creation, investment opportunities, etc. In spite of all the benefits of palm biofuels, they are also found to cause negative socio-economic impacts to the society. The economic impacts of oil palm and palm biofuels production are elaborated in this chapter. Oil palm biomass is a cheap source of feedstock for palm biofuels compared to other feedstocks used for biofuel production.

In this chapter, biodiesel production from palm oil and palm fatty acid distillate PFAD are found to be economically viable compared to fossil diesel and biodiesel from other oils. BioDME dimethyl ether can be produced via catalytic dehydration of methanol or directly from syngas. According to the latest published life-cycle analysis for various feedstocks and the feedstock mix reported by the Energy Information Administration and the U.

If biofuels provided just over a quarter of transport fuel in , it would avoid an estimated 2. Biofuels are among the few fuels for medium- and heavy-duty trucking that are renewable. Renewable fuels can be produced by the agricultural sector planted crops and crop residues and the non-agricultural sector planted trees and tree residues, animal waste material and byproducts, slash and pre-commercial thinnings , according to the EPA. Transportation related emissions are estimated to be responsible for about half of deaths from outdoor air pollution, which is now the biggest environmental cause of premature death, resulting in an estimated , deaths in the Unites States in Increased biofuel production can result in large impacts on biological diversity through land conversion, introduction of invasive species, and the soil and water impacts common to agriculture.

Studies have shown that substantially increased biofuel production can result in habitat loss, increased invasive species, and nutrient pollution, especially if crop production replaces native forest.

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The science for characterizing impacts of emissions from land use is emergent, however recent advances in modeling and new standards and regulation have increased clarity on the issue. Advances in modeling have also enabled a likely range for impacts of indirect land use of In the United States, study results of commodity competition for biofuel feedstocks vary.

Biofuel projects are at risk for the same human rights challenges faced by the agricultural sector broadly e. Exploitation sometimes includes unlawful child labor and migrant workers. Additionally, land-use conflicts and tension with traditional livelihoods are other important factors that have the potential to produce human rights challenges. Certain biofuels consume more water than any type of fuel energy, though there are notable variations by feedstock type, fuel pathway, and irrigation patterns.

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The freshwater intensity of biofuels from soy and corn can be two orders of magnitude larger than average freshwater consumption for the oil-to-liquid fuels supply chain primary recovery. Yet the regions and crops that matter most to North American fuel users in the near term are mostly low- or no-irrigation crops.

Advanced biomass-to-liquids BTL conversion using non-food feedstocks or agricultural waste products and counting co-products reduces GHG emissions percent compared to diesel. Biofuel approved under either the U. Biofuels produced from feedstocks in rain-fed agricultural regions of the United States would ensure minimal water availability impacts. Zero-emissions controls can eliminate other air pollution during vehicle operation. The Natural Resources Defense Council produced a report on biofuel sustainability certifications that highlights Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials RSB as an exemplary market-based standard.

Biofuels from plant and animal wastes such as tallow, cooking oil, and second-generation biomass-based diesel alternatives from biomass-to-liquids offer highest lifecycle GHG benefits. Once fleet owners are satisfied with fuel availability regionally and vehicle technologies, they can roll out on small scale in those areas.

Since the introduction of catalytic converters and improved fuels to enable them in the mids, there have been significant reductions in tailpipe emissions. Risks to human health from diesel exhaust in North America have been drastically reduced as a result.