TEMPERAMENTS IN RELATIONSHIP
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One infant may react with high intensity to changes in temperature, such as a cold, wet diaper wipe, and scream loudly. Another infant might have the same physical feeling about changes in temperature but his intensity of reaction is mild; he may make a face, or turn away. This does not mean he feels it less than the screaming infant, and that is an important point for teachers to be aware of with children in their care.
The child with the biggest voice may not be the child with the biggest need at the moment. These nine temperamental traits often appear in groupings referred to as temperament types or styles.
The three types are as follows:. Although it may be easy to imagine that all children fit neatly into one of the three styles of temperament, some children have characteristics of more than one of these temperamental types. Therefore, understanding how an individual child expresses or experiences the nine temperament traits will give you a deeper understanding of his or her unique needs and behavior than a specific style might.
Talking with parents and family members will help you further understand the individual temperament of a child. You may also ask families to partner with you in completing a developmental assessment for their child. This information will add details that help you understand the individual needs of their child. You may also wish to share information or resources with parents such as this video on temperament from Zero To Three. This interactive site introduces you to the nine temperament traits and has an online survey you can take to assess temperament traits in adults and children.
The IT 3 tool is also available in Spanish. Goodness of fit happens when an adult changes expectations and practices to support the unique temperament and abilities of a specific child Center for Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation, n. Over time, and with the support of caring adults, each child can learn to manage his or her own temperament and adjust to the demands of daily life.
The cyclothymic temperament score moderately correlated with role conflict, role ambiguity, intragroup conflict, and weakly correlated with social support from coworkers. The hyperthymic temperament score moderately correlated with job control and role ambiguity. The irritable temperament score highly correlated with role conflict and intragroup conflict, moderately correlated with role ambiguity and social support from supervisors and from coworkers, and weakly correlated with the quantitative workload. The anxious temperament score moderately correlated with role conflict, social support from coworkers, and weakly correlated with social support from supervisors.
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Table 3 shows the results of univariate logistic regression analysis using demographic variables age and gender , work-related variables service years, position classification, occupation, and type of employment , five temperaments, and each of the seven subdivided GJSQ subscales as independent variables, with the insomnia group as a dependent variable; ORs were calculated. Additionally, Table 3 shows the result of stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis using demographic variables age and gender , work-related variables service years, position classification, occupation, and type of employment , 5 temperaments, and the 7 subdivided GJSQ subscales as independent variables, with the insomnia group as a dependent variable; ORs were calculated.
The results of the present study indicate the relationships between anxious temperament, role conflict, and insomnia.
Understanding and Adapting to Individual Temperaments
The anxious temperament is related to many psychological traits, such as, worry, awakening, tension, oversensitivity, unrestful sleep, and gastrointestinal symptoms [ 25 , 47 ]. The anxious temperament has also been described to make strong predictions about anxieties [ 38 ] and suicide attempts [ 28 ]. It has been reported that worry, rumination, and a predisposition to worry increase vulnerability to sleep disorders [ 56 ]. Moreover, personality profiles associated with insomnia are characterized by the presence of neurotic depression, rumination, chronic anxiety, and a predisposition coupled with the process of conditioning fear of sleeplessness—internalization of the fear—further emotional arousal and psychological activation.
These factors have been found to contribute to the development of chronic insomnia [ 57 ]. Ottoni and colleagues reported that the depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments were related to worse sleep quality, and that the hyperthymic temperament was associated with better sleep quality [ 45 ]. The relationship between the anxious temperament and insomnia was found in this study, and the result is compatible with those of previous studies [ 45 , 56 , 57 ].
On the contrary, relationships between the depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, and irritable temperaments and insomnia were not found in this study. Moreover, the authors have stated the generalizability of their results to the general population as a study limitation. Although there might be employees who work while having mental disorders, none of the subjects in this study were unemployed, and the results in the current study might therefore be more generalizable to the general population.
Differences between the subjects might have had an impact on the results. The present study showed a relationship between role conflict and insomnia. Few studies have investigated the relationship between these variables. Knudsen and colleagues have reported that role conflict among full-time employees in the United States of America USA was positively associated with difficulties initiating sleep and non-restorative sleep, and that conflicting role demands might be related to organizational injustice and interpersonal stressors in the workplace [ 19 ].
Role conflict is reported to be a situation wherein employees face a lot of pressure from incompatible job demands like group interdependence, a different working style by subordinates, supervisors, and different requirements from people [ 58 ], and these factors might cumulatively lead to insomnia. Some studies have demonstrated the relationships between insomnia and job demand, job control, social support, job insecurity, organizational justice, intragroup conflict, job strain, effort—reward imbalance, employment level, and shift work, among others [ 8 — 20 ].
No relationship was found with other types of occupational stress, except that between insomnia and role conflict in this study.
[The relationship between mood disorders and temperament, character and personality].
The effects of the anxious temperament and role conflict on insomnia might be greater than those of other types of occupational stress. These differences might actually derive from differences in occupation, countries, or methods of evaluating occupational stress and insomnia. The prevalence rate of insomnia was This rate reportedly varies due to differences in applied definitions and diagnostic criteria [ 59 ].
Therefore, among studies using the AIS and demonstrating a relationship between insomnia and various types of occupational stress, the prevalence rate was from Internet usage has become prevalent and various services are provided for 24 hours. As a result, the work life has changed dramatically, with the work—life balance becoming poor.
These remarkable changes in society might explain the increasing prevalence rate of insomnia, as shown by a comparison between the rate before [ 10 , 14 , 20 ] and that after [ 11 , 12 , 20 ]. Third, changing organizational policies, such as clarifying the role and content of diversified work, sharing information, and embracing diversity in the workplace would be needed to reduce role conflict.
Fourth, supervisors and coworkers would have to receive training in accordance with the new policy. These strategies would reduce the prevalence of insomnia in the workplace. Several limitations in this study should be mentioned. First, the sample size was small, and only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Second, occupational stress was evaluated through self-reports; thus, the results may have been influenced by response bias. Third, the moderate response rate for our survey questionnaire Fourth, it cannot be said with certainty from our data if the relationship between temperament, occupational stress, and insomnia is causal; nor can the direction of any such causality be established.
For example, job stressors might affect scores on measures of temperament. This is unlikely; however, given the relative stability of temperament, as compared with stress. None of the subjects in this study were unemployed, but there might be employees who work while having mental disorders. Therefore, future studies would have to take sub-threshold mental disorders e.
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In future research, a cohort or longitudinal design to address the relationships between temperament and the factors in the workplace would be beneficial. In the future, we hope that temperaments will receive more focus within the study and practice of occupational safety and health. We thank Dr. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Apr Deepak Shukla, Editor.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceptualization: YD SI. Data curation: YD. Formal analysis: YD SI. Funding acquisition: YD. Investigation: YD SI. Project administration: KI. Writing — original draft: YD SI. Received Jan 20; Accepted Mar 3.
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This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Relationships between temperaments, occupational stress, and insomnia among Japanese workers
Abstract Insomnia among workers reduces the quality of life, contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs and losses in work performance. Introduction Insomnia impairs daytime functioning [ 1 ], reduces the quality of life [ 2 ], and contributes toward the economic burden of healthcare costs [ 3 , 4 ] and losses in work performance e.
Materials and methods Subjects We distributed self-administer, anonymous questionnaires to Japanese day-shift workers in local government between August and September Demographic and work-related variables Demographic variables included age and gender. Statistical analyses Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios ORs of demographic variables, work-related variables, five temperaments, and the seven GJSQ subscales with regard to the Insomnia group.
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Logistic regression analysis examining the association between temperaments, occupational stress, and insomnia Table 3 shows the results of univariate logistic regression analysis using demographic variables age and gender , work-related variables service years, position classification, occupation, and type of employment , five temperaments, and each of the seven subdivided GJSQ subscales as independent variables, with the insomnia group as a dependent variable; ORs were calculated.
Table 3 Analysis of risk factors for insomnia by crude and stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis. OR: Odds Ratio. CI: Confidence Interval. Parenthesis denotes reference category.